Mosquitoes are important as vectors of diseases whose scourge can disrupt the social and economic well being of a country. These include species belonging to the genera Anopheles, Aedes, Culex and Mansonia.

The most important disease transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes is malaria, and some species also transmit filariasis. They breed in a variety of habitats ranging from brackish coastal waters to inland fresh waters especially marshes, rice fields, ditches, pools and ponds. They feed both on man and animals and lay eggs at night. Feeding and resting takes place either indoors or outdoors.

Aedes mosquitoes are vectors of dengue/dengue haemorrhagic and yellow fever and in some areas also transmit filariasis. They breed in natural and man made container-habitats such as tree holes, water pots and tyres. Aedes bite mainly during the day or early hours of the evening. Most biting occurs outdoors and adults rest outdoors before and after feeding, especially around human dwellings in urban and rural areas.

Culex mosquitoes are important vectors of encephalitis viruses (J.E). These mosquitoes breed mostly in ground collections of water such as pools, puddles, ditches, drains and rice fields. Many prefer waters polluted with organic debris. Culex species are mosquitoes that are associated with urbanization and towns with poor drainage and sanitation. Adults commonly bite at night and rest indoors before and after feeding.

The main medical importance of Mansonia is as vectors of Filariasis. They breed mainly in permanent collection of waters with floating vegetation to which the larvae and pupae attach their siphons and breathing trumpets to draw in air. Except for a fewspecies, adult Mansonia usually bites outdoors during the night and thereafter rests outdoors.

Aedes Culex
Control Strategies for Mosquitoes

Mosquito Control can be divided into 4 Categories

         1. Source Reduction & Environmental Management
             This method offers the best strategy for a long term control. For eg. removing unwanted containers such              as tins cans, tyres etc. prevent breeding of Aedes mosquitoes, thus reducing the transmission of              dengue/dengue haemorrhagic fever. Better sub soil drainage in hilly areas helps to reduce Anopheles              population, and corresponding malaria transmission

         2. Biological Control
             The only cost effective biological agents against mosquitoes in the field are Bacillus thuringiensis and              Bacillus sphaericus.

         3. Chemical Control by Maxpro Pest Control Services
             The use of insecticides, which are more effective but less hazardous, has been the mainstay for the              control of mosquitoes. We use space spray formulations, both thermal fogging and ultra low volume,              against Aedes mosquitoes in the control of dengue/dengue haemorrhagic fever. Maxpro uses Resigen              50E formulations for external spraying using both thermal foggers and ULV, while Aqua Resigen EW is              used for internal fogging in residential, commercial and industrial buildings.

             Services have been awarded a 2 year contract for larvaciding, fogging & ULV spraying by Majlis              Perbandaran Subang Jaya beginning January 2009.

             Insect Growth Regulators IGR have also shown to be effective in controlling immature stages of              mosquitoes. Based on their mode of action, IGRs can be divided into juvenile hormone and chitin              synthesis inhibitors, both of which disrupt the metamorphosis of the immature stages.
         4. Physical Barriers & Personal Protection
             Insecticide impregnated bed-nets repel and kill mosquitoes. The use of household insecticide products              is most common form of personal protection measure, which includes aerosols, mosquito coils, electric              mats and liquid vapourizer. In addition, repellents applied on exposed skin are also used for protection              against mosquito bites.

             MAXPRO also use an integrated control approach whereby a combination of any of the above methods              are used to eliminate or reduce mosquito population, depending on your situation & needs!

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